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What India And Pakistan Resolve In Simla Agreement Of 1972

by admin on April 15th, 2021

What exactly are these pacts and why are they important? The Delhi Agreement on the Return of War and Civilian Internees is a tripartite agreement between these states, signed on 28 August 1973. The agreement was signed by Kamal Hossain, the Foreign Minister of the Government of Bangladesh, Sardar Swaran Singh, the Indian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Aziz Ahmed, Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs of the Pakistani government. [9] [10] [11] According to historian Ramachandra Guha, India wanted a “comprehensive treaty to solve all outstanding problems,” while Pakistan preferred a “piecemeal approach.” Although India wanted a treaty, it reached an agreement because of the bitter negotiations of the Pakistanis. The international and regional context after 1971 had made the realization of some kind of agreement an important political objective for Gandhi and his national security team. After a successful war that liberated Bangladesh, politicians tried to continue to submit India`s status by showing a credible attempt at peace. Of course, India`s image had to be balanced by concrete results. The most desirable outcome would have been a final resolution in Kashmir, which bypasses the de facto position administered by both sides. The evidence is that policymakers have attempted to address some of the deep roots of the Indo-Pakistani conflict in Kashmir, seen as a direct manifestation of Pakistan`s national identity and not as a normal territorial impasse between states. P.N. Haksar, Gandhi`s senior foreign policy adviser, later wrote that India`s approach was based on “the realization that Pakistan continues to have an unresolved crisis of its national identity.” 1971 paved the way for an alternative future for Pakistan. In 2001, then-Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf visited India on 14 and 16 July for a historic two-day summit in Agra at the invitation of Prime Minister Vajpayeee. However, the talks failed and no text of agreement could be found. D.P.

Dhar, another great confidant of Gandhi and India`s chief negotiator, also seemed to support Haksar`s core spirit. In his telegram to Haksar in March 1972, Dhar said: “The colony (Simla) will not be between the victor and the vanquished, because such a colony has given rise to new conflicts and more violent conflicts in history. An agreement on the contrary… should also appear as the end of a chapter of criticism between two alienated brothers.┬áBut we now also know that Dhar was less enthusiastic about the prospect of change in Pakistan than in ensuring that India was seen as a credible attempt to maintain peace. Most importantly, he wanted India to make obvious profits during the negotiation process. For Dhar, without a solution to the Kashmir issue, “there could be no hope for lasting peace in the subcontinent.” Later in December 2015, Prime Minister Modi made history by making a surprise stop in Lahore on December 25 to meet President Sharif, on the first visit by an Indian prime minister to Pakistan in more than a decade.

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